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Atatürkün Hayatı Özet ve İngilizce Atatürkün Hayatı Mustafa Kemal , 1881 yılında , Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na bağlı bir vilayet olan Selanik’te doğdu. Babası Ali Rıza Efendi
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    Atatürkün Hayatı Özet ve İngilizce Atatürkün Hayatı

    Mustafa Kemal, 1881 yılında, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na bağlı bir vilayet olan Selanik’te doğdu. Babası Ali Rıza Efendi, annesi Zübeyde Hanım’dır. Babasını küçük yaşta kaybettikten sonra ilkokulu Selanik’te Şemsi Efendi Mektebi (İlkokul)’nde okudu. Öğrenimini Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi(ortaokul) ve Manastır Askeri İdadisi(Lise)’nde sürdürdü. 1899′da girdiği İstanbul Harbiye Mektebi’ni 1902 yılında piyade teğmeni rütbesiyle, Harp Akademisi’ni de 1905′te kurmay yüzbaşı rütbesiye bitirdi.

    Atatürkün Hayatý Özet ve Ýngilizce Atatürkün Hayatý-atat-rk-ingilizce-hayat-.jpg

    Mustafa Kemal, 1905 yılında Şm’da 5. Ordu’da, 1907′de Makedonya’daki 3. Ordu’da görevlendirildi. Manastır ve Selanik’te görevli iken 1909′da İstanbul’daki (31 Mart Vak’ası) ayaklanmayı bastıran Hareket Ordusu’nda görev aldı ve ayaklanma başarıyla kısa sürede bastırıldı. Arnavutluk isyanını bastırma harekatına katıldı. 1911′de İtalya’nın Trablusgarp’a asker çıkarması üzerine Tobruk’a gönderildi. Tobruk ve Derne’de Türk Kuvvetlerini başarı ile yönettikten sonra binbaşı rütbesiyle 1912-1913 yıllarında Balkan Savaşı’na katıldı; Edirne’yi Bulgaristan’dan geri alan kolorduda görev yaptı. 1913-1915 yıllarında Sofya’da ataşe olarak bulundu. Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nda, 1915′te, 19. Tümen Komutanı olarak Çanakkale Savaşı’na katıldı. Gelibolu’da düşman saldırılarını başarı ile durdurdu; “Anafartalar Kahramanı” olarak ün kazandı.


    Afgan kralı Amanullah Han’la Başbakan İnönü’nün tenis oynayışlarını seyrederken.(24 Mayıs 1928)

    1916′da Doğu Cephesi’ne Kolordu Komutanı olarak atandı ve generalliğe yükseltildi. Rus saldırılarını durduran Mustafa Kemal, Bingöl ve Muş’u düşmandan geri aldı. 1917′de Filistin ve Suriye’de görevli 7. Ordu Komutanlığı’na atandı. Aynı yıl Veliaht Vahdettin ile Almanya’ya gitti.
    Alman Genel Karargahı ve Alman savaş cephelerinde incelemeler yaptı. 1918′de yeniden görevlendirildiği Suriye cephesinde 7. Ordu Komutanı iken, Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın sona ermesiyle imzalanan Mondros Ateşkes Antlaşması’ndan sonra İstanbul’a geldi. Ülkeyi düşman işgalinden kurtarmak amacını gizli tutarak, Ordu Müfettişliği görevi ile İstanbul’dan ayrıldı.
    Karadeniz yoluyla 19 Mayıs 1919′da Samsun’a çıkan Mustafa Kemal, 22 Haziran 1919′da Amasya Genelgesi’ni yayımladı. Türk milletine, “Vatanın bütünlüğünün ve milletin bağımsızlığının tehlikede olduğunu, azim ve kararlılıkla vatanın kurtarılması için Sivas’ta bir kongre toplanacağını” bildirdi. Ayrıca Osmanlı Hükûmeti’nin verdiği görevden ve askerlikten istifa ederek 23 Temmuz 1919′da Erzurum’da, 4 Eylül 1919′da Sivas’ta toplanan kongrelerin başkanlığını yaptı.

    Bu kongrelerde, “Düşman işgaline karşı milletin vatanı savunacağı, bu amaçla geçici bir hükûmetin kurulacağı ve bir milli meclisin toplanacağı, manda ve himayenin kabul edilmeyeceği” kararları alındı ve açıklandı. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi, onun çabalarıyla 23 Nisan 1920′de Ankara’da tarihi görevine başladı; Mustafa Kemal, Meclis ve Hükümet Başkanı seçildi. Osmanlı Hükümeti ile İtilaf Devletleri arasında imzalanan Sevr Antlaşması’nı Türk milletinin kabul etmediğini dünyaya duyurdu.

    Mustafa Kemal, Ankara (29 Ekim 1929)

    İtilaf Devletleri’nin yardımıyla İzmir’i işgal eden Yunan Kuvvetlerinin ilerlemesi 1921′de Birinci ve İkinci İnönü savaşlarıyla durduruldu. 23 Ağustos 1921′de yeniden saldıran Yunan Ordusu bozguna uğratılarak Başkomutan Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın yönettiği Türk Ordusu Sakarya Meydan Savaşı’nı zaferle sonuçlandırdı. 22 gün geceli gündüzlü süren bu savaşta Yunan Ordusu ağır kayıplara uğratıldı. Bu zafer nedeniyle Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi tarafından Mustafa Kemal’e a€˜Mareşal’ rütbesi ve ‘Gazi’ unvanı verildi. Türk Ordusu, vatanı düşman işgalinden kurtarmak için 26 Ağustos 1922′de karşı saldırıya başladı. Mustafa Kemal Paşa’nın yönettiği Başkomutan Meydan Savaşı’nda (30 Ağustos 1922) Türk Ordusu Yunan Ordusu’nun büyük kısmını yok etti. Bozguna uğrayarak kaçan düşman kuvvetlerini izleyen Türk Ordusu 9 Eylül 1922′de İzmir’e girdi. 11 Ekim 1922′de Mudanya Ateşkes Antlaşması imzalandı ve İtilaf Devletleri işgal ettikleri Türk topraklarından çekildiler.

    Kurtuluş Savaşı’nın ardından TBMM tarafından 29 Ekim 1923 günü Cumhuriyet ilan edilirken, Mustafa Kemal de Cumhurbaşkanı seçildi. 1938′deki ölümüne dek arka arkaya 4 kez cumhurbaşkanı seçilen Atatürk, bu görevi en uzun süre yürüten cumhurbaşkanı oldu.
    Mustafa Kemal’e, 24.11.1934 günlü, 2587 sayılı kanunla Atatürk soyadı verildi ve bu soyadının başkaları tarafından kullanılması yasaklandı.


    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1929 Dünya Ekonomik Bunalımı’nın etkilerini hafifletmek ve ülkenin kalkınmasını hızlandırmak amacı ile 1933′te Beş Yıllık Sanayi Planı’nı başlattı. Aynı dönemde dış politikada da önemli adımlar atıldı; Milletler Cemiyeti’ne girilmesi (1932), Balkan Antantı’nın imzalanması (1934), Montrö Boğazlar Sözleşmesi (1936) ve Sadabat Paktı (1937) gibi girişimler Türkiye’nin bölgesinde ve dünyada etkili bir aktör olarak öne çıkmasına katkıda bulundu. Atatürk, Hatay’ın anavatana katılması için yoğun bir diplomatik çaba sarf etti ve onun bu amacı, vefatının ardından 1939 yılında gerçekleşti.

    Atatürk, yalnızca Türk milletinin Kurtuluş Savaşı’nı başarı ile yöneten bir komutan değil, aynı zamanda gerçekleştirdiği devrimler ile de dahi bir devlet adamı idi. 57 yıl süren yaşamının büyük kısmında, milletinin ve vatanının bağımsızlığı ve mutluluğu için yılmadan çalıştı ve girdiği her mücadeleden zaferle çıktı.

    Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin kurucusu, cesur ve unutulmaz önderi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 10 Kasım 1938′de aramızdan ayrıldı.

    MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATÜRK’S LIFE

    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – 1938) was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881 in Salonika (Selanik, today in Greece, then under the Ottoman rule). His father’s name was Ali Riza Efendi. His father was customs official.
    His mother’s name was Zübeyde Hanim. For his primary education, he went to the school of Semsi Efendi in Salonika. But Mustafa lost his father at an early age, he had to leave school. Mustafa and his mother went to live with his uncle in the countryside. His mother brought him up. Life continued like this for a time. Mustafa worked on the farm but his mother began to worry about his lack of schooling. It was finally decided that he should live with his mother’s sister in Salonika.

    He entered the Military Middle School in Salonika. In 1895, after finishing the Military Middle School, Mustafa Kemal entered the Military High School (Askeri Idadisi ) in Manastir.
    After successfully completing his studies at the Manastir Military School, Mustafa Kemal went to Istanbul and on the 13th of March 1899 he entered the infantry class of the Military Academy (Harbiye Harp Okulu). After finishing the Military Academy, Mustafa Kemal went on to the General Staff College in 1902. He was graduated from the Academy with the rank of captain on the 11th of January, 1905.

    In 1906, he was sent to Damascus (Sam). Mustafa Kemal and his friends founded a society which they called “Vatan ve Hürriyet” (Fatherland and Freedom) in Damascus. On his own initiative, he went to Tripoli during the war with Italy in 1911 and took part in the defense of Derne and Tobruk. While he was still in Libya, the Balkan War broke out. He served in the Balkan War as a successful Commander (1912-1914). At the end of the Balkan War, Mustafa Kemal was appointed military attache in Sofia.

    When Mustafa Kemal was in Sofia, the First World War broke out. He was made Commander of the Anafartalar Group on 8th of August, 1915. In the First World War he was in command of the Turkish forces at Anafartalar at a critical moment. This was when the Allied landings in the Dardanelles (Çanakkale Bogazi) took place and he personally saved the situation in Gallipoli. During the battle, Mustafa Kemal was hit by shrapnel above the heart, but a watch in his breast pocket saved his life. Mustafa Kemal explained his state of mind as he accepted this great responsibility: “Indeed, it was not easy to shoulder such responsibility, but as I had decided not to live to see my country’s destruction, I accepted it proudly”. He then served in the Caucasus and in Syria and just before the armistice in 1918 he was placed in command of the Lightning Army group in Syria. After the armistice (peace agreement), he returned to Istanbul.

    After the Armistice of Mondoros, the countries that had signed the agreement did not consider it necessary to abide by its terms. Under various pretexts the navies and the armies of the Entente (France, Britain and Italy) were in Istanbul, while the province of Adana had been occupied by the French, and Urfa and Maras by the British. There were Italian soldiers in Antalya and Konya, and British soldiers in Merzifon and Samsun. There were foreign officers, officials and agents almost everywhere in the country.

    On the 15th of May 1919 the Greek Army landed in Izmir with the agreement of the Entente. Under difficult conditions, Mustafa Kemal decided to go to Anatolia. On 16th of May 1919, he left Istanbul in a small boat called the “Bandirma”. Mustafa Kemal was warned that his enemies had planned to sink his ship on the way out, but he was not afraid and on Monday19th May 1919, he arrived in Samsun and set foot on Anatolian soil. That date marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. It is also the date that Mustafa Kemal later chose as his own birthday. A wave of national resistance arose in Anatolia. A movement had already begun in Erzurum in the east and Mustafa Kemal quickly placed himself at the head of the whole organization. The congresses in Erzurum and Sivas in the Summer of 1919 declared the national aims by a national pact.

    When the foreign armies occupied Istanbul, on 23th of April 1920 Mustafa Kemal opened the Turkish Grand National Assembly and hence established a provisional new government, the centre of which was to be Ankara. On the same day Mustafa Kemal was elected President of the Grand National Assembly. The Greeks, profiting by the rebellion of Çerkez Ethem and acting in collaboration with him, started to advance towards Bursa and Eskisehir. On the 10th of January 1921, the enemy forces were heavily defeated by the Commander of the Western Front, colonel Ismet and his troops. On the 10th of July 1921, the Greeks launched a frontal attack with five divisions on Sakarya. After the great battle of Sakarya, which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September, the Greek Army was defeated and had to retreat. After the battle, the Grand National Assembly gave Mustafa Kemal the titles of Ghazi and Marshal. Mustafa Kemal decided to drive the enemies out of his country and he gave the order that the attack should be launched on the morning of the 26th of August 1922. The bulk of the enemy forces were surrounded and killed or captured on the 30th of August at Dumlupinar.

    The enemy Commander-in-Chief, General Trikupis, was captured. Or the 9th of September 1922 the fleeing enemy forces were driven into the sea near Izmir. The Turkish forces, under the extraordinary military skills of Kemal Atatürk, fought a War of Independence against the occupying Allied powers and won victories on every front all over the country.
    On the 24th of July 1923, with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the independence of the new Turkish State was recognized by all countries. Mustafa Kemal built up a new, sturdy, vigorous state. On the 29th of October 1923, he declared the new Turkish Republic. Following the declaration of the Republic he started to his radical reforms to modernize the country. Mustafa Kemal was elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey.
    Atatürk made frequent tours of the country. While visiting Gemlik and Bursa, Atatürk caught a chill. He returned to Istanbul to be treated and to rest, but, unfortunately Atatürk was seriously ill. At 9.05 AM on the 10th of November 1938, Atatürk died, but he attained immortality in the eyes of his people. Since the moment of his death, his beloved name and memory have been engraved on the hearts of his people. As a commander he had been the victorious of many battles, as a leader he had influenced the masses, as a statesman he had led a successful administration, and as a revolutionary he had striven to alter the social, cultural, economic, political and legal structure of society at its roots. He was one of the most eminent personalities in the history of the world, history will count him among the most glorious sons of the Turkish nation and one of the greatest leaders of mankind.

    EVENTS IN ATATÜRK’S LIFE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

    1881
    Mustafa born in Salonika.
    1893
    Mustafa enters the Military Preparatory School in Salonika and is given the second name “Kemal” by his teacher.
    1895
    Mustafa Kemal enters the Military High School at Manastir.
    1899
    Mustafa Kemal enters the infantry class of the Military Academy in Istanbul.
    1902
    Mustafa Kemal graduates from the Military Academy and goes on to the General Staff College.
    January 11, 1905
    Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army, based in Damascus.
    October 1906
    Mustafa Kemal and his friends from the secret society “Fatherland and Freedom” in Damascus.
    September 1907
    Mustafa Kemal transferred to Third Army and goes to Salonika.
    September 13, 1911
    Mustafa Kemal transferred to General Staff in Istanbul.
    January 9, 1912
    Mustafa Kemal successfully leads the Tobruk offensive in Libya.
    November 25, 1912
    Mustafa Kemal appointed Director of Operations, Mediterranean Straits Special Forces.
    October 27, 1913
    Mustafa Kemal appointed Military Attache in Sofia.
    April 25, 1915
    Allies land at Ariburnu (Gallipoli) and Mustafa Kemal stops their progress with his division.
    August 9, 1915
    Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Anafartalar Group.
    April 1, 1916
    Mustafa Kemal promoted to Brigadier-General.
    August 6-7, 1916
    Mustafa Kemal takes Bitlis and Mus back from the enemy.
    October 31, 1918
    Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander of Lightning Group of Armies.
    April 30, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal appointed Inspector of 9th Army based in Erzurum with wide powers.
    May 16, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul.
    May 19, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. This date was recorded as the start of War of Independence.
    July 8, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal resigns from the post of Inspector of 3rd Army and from the army.
    July 23, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Erzurum Congress.
    September 4, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Sivas Congress.
    December 27, 1919
    Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Excutive Committee.
    April 23, 1920
    Mustafa Kemal opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.
    May 11, 1920
    Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul.
    August 5, 1921
    Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander-in-Chief by the Grand National Assembly.
    August 23, 1921
    The battle of Sakarya begins with Turkish troops led by Mustafa Kemal.
    September 19, 1921
    The Grand National Assembly gives Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and the title Gazi.
    August 26, 1922
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal begins to lead the Great Offensive from the hill of Kocatepe.
    August 30, 1922
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha wins the battle of Dumlupinar.
    September 10, 1922
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal enters Izmir.
    November 1, 1922
    The Grand National Assembly accepts Gazi Mustafa Kemal’s proposal to abolish the Sultanate.
    January 14, 1923
    Mustafa Kemal’s mother Zübeyde Hanim dies in Izmir.
    October 29, 1923
    Proclamation of the Turkish Republic and Gazi Mustafa Kemal is elected as the first President.
    August 24, 1924
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal wears a hat for the first time at Sarayburnu in Istanbul.
    August 9, 1928
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal speaks at Sarayburnu on the new Turkish Alphabet.
    April 12, 1931
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Historical Society.
    July 12, 1932
    Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Linguistic Society.
    June 16, 1934
    The Grand National Assembly passes a law granting Gazi Mustafa Kemal the surname “Atatürk”.
    November 10, 1938
    Atatürk dies at 09:05 in Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul


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